Residual risk is the disaster risk that remains even when effective disaster risk reduction measures are in place, and for which emergency response and recovery capacities must be maintained. The presence of residual risk implies a continuing need to develop and support effective capacities for emergency services, preparedness, response and recovery, together with socioeconomic policies such as safety nets and risk transfer mechanisms, as part of a holistic approach. Disaster risk management is the application of disaster risk reduction policies and strategies to prevent new disaster risk, reduce existing disaster risk and manage residual risk, contributing to the strengthening of resilience and reduction of disaster losses.
Annotation: Disaster risk management actions can be distinguished between prospective disaster risk management, corrective disaster risk management and compensatory disaster risk management, also called residual risk management. Prospective disaster risk management activities address and seek to avoid the development of new or increased disaster risks. They focus on addressing disaster risks that may develop in future if disaster risk reduction policies are not put in place. Examples are better land-use planning or disaster-resistant water supply systems.
Corrective disaster risk management activities address and seek to remove or reduce disaster risks which are already present and which need to be managed and reduced now. Examples are the retrofitting of critical infrastructure or the relocation of exposed populations or assets.
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Compensatory disaster risk management activities strengthen the social and economic resilience of individuals and societies in the face of residual risk that cannot be effectively reduced. They include preparedness, response and recovery activities, but also a mix of different financing instruments, such as national contingency funds, contingent credit, insurance and reinsurance and social safety nets.
Community-based disaster risk management promotes the involvement of potentially affected communities in disaster risk management at the local level. This includes community assessments of hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities, and their involvement in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of local action for disaster risk reduction. Disaster risk management plans set out the goals and specific objectives for reducing disaster risks together with related actions to accomplish these objectives. National-level plans need to be specific to each level of administrative responsibility and adapted to the different social and geographical circumstances that are present.
The time frame and responsibilities for implementation and the sources of funding should be specified in the plan. Linkages to sustainable development and climate change adaptation plans should be made where possible. Disaster risk reduction is aimed at preventing new and reducing existing disaster risk and managing residual risk, all of which contribute to strengthening resilience and therefore to the achievement of sustainable development. Annotation: Disaster risk reduction is the policy objective of disaster risk management, and its goals and objectives are defined in disaster risk reduction strategies and plans.
Disaster risk reduction strategies and policies define goals and objectives across different timescales and with concrete targets, indicators and time frames. In line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction , these should be aimed at preventing the creation of disaster risk, the reduction of existing risk and the strengthening of economic, social, health and environmental resilience. An integrated system of hazard monitoring, forecasting and prediction, disaster risk assessment, communication and preparedness activities systems and processes that enables individuals, communities, governments, businesses and others to take timely action to reduce disaster risks in advance of hazardous events.
These four interrelated components need to be coordinated within and across sectors and multiple levels for the system to work effectively and to include a feedback mechanism for continuous improvement. Failure in one component or a lack of coordination across them could lead to the failure of the whole system. A multi-hazard early warning system with the ability to warn of one or more hazards increases the efficiency and consistency of warnings through coordinated and compatible mechanisms and capacities, involving multiple disciplines for updated and accurate hazards identification and monitoring for multiple hazards.
A process, phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Annotations: Hazards may be natural, anthropogenic or socionatural in origin. Natural hazards are predominantly associated with natural processes and phenomena. Contemporary Issues in Animal Science and Agriculture.
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The development and management of current issues affecting animal agriculture and science in three primary areas: 1 how do issues develop; 2 the political aspects of issues; and 3 the development of expertise based on objective assessment. Recommended Pr. ENTOM Insects and People. Intended for undergraduate non-majors as part of the university general education curriculum.
The focus will be on the global impact of insects and their relatives on human concerns, from acting as disease vectors, agricultural pests, and pollinators to their roles in art, history, and religion. Two hours lec. FOR Introduction to Natural Resource Management. A survey of historic and present-day uses, problems, and basic management approaches associated with our renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
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The impact of society, economics, law, politics, and philosophy on the management and use of our natural resources will also be examined. GENAG Citizenship and Ethics in Agriculture. The study of agriculture's relationship with society while encompassing ethics and personal personal development. Current controversial issues and multidimensional policy topics facing the agricultural industry will be explored with an emphasis on moral and philosophical debates. Issues regarding professional ethics and decision making will also be an emphasis.
Three hours rec. The study of agriculture's relationship with society while encompassing ethics and personal development. Current controversial issues and multidimentional policy topics facing the agricultural industry will be explored with an emphasis on moral and philosophical debates. HORT Concepts of Floral Design.
An introduction to the use of flowers and related products with emphasis on fundamentals of design. Two hours rec. For majors or non-majors.
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Human Dimensions of Horticulture. Introduction to horticulture applied in schools, psychiatric and medical hospitals, corrections, vocational rehabilitation centers, elderly programs, and consumer horticulture settings. Networking the art and science of horticulture with architecture, business, social sciences, health care, horticulture, and education. PLPTH Microbes, Plants, and the Human Perspective.
The course focuses on microbes as they interact with plants, the plant environment, and the human connection to plants as a resource. Topics include: events and historical context of germ theory, symbiosis as a biological phenomenon and analogue for human social structure, and popular perception of genetically-engineered plants and microbes. ARCH Science, Technology, and Architecture.
An exploration of the interrelationships between architecture and various sciences including the technological applications of selected scientific theories. Architecture Through the Ages. An introductory survey of the history of architecture worldwide from its prehistoric beginnings up to the present day. May not be taken for credit by students enrolled in the College of Architecture, Planning, and Design.
Appreciation of Architecture. An analysis of the evolution of architectural styles to determine the relation of architectural expression to the needs of society. May not be taken for credit by students enrolled in the architecture, landscape architecture, or interior architecture curricula. IAPD Design and Material Culture. People's personal characteristics or social position can be expressed by the products they purchase, the possessions they own, and the physical environments they create. This course, examines material culture which is created from the influences of human behavior, design, history, marketing, economics, politics, geography, the arts, and sociology.
LAR Environmental Issues and Ethics. An introduction to the relationship of the natural environment to the life within it and as a factor in environmental design ethic. PLAN Introduction to City Planning. The origins and evolution of planning in response to economic, social, political, and physical problems.
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The planning process and its relationship to the design professions and the social and behavioral sciences. Three hours recitation a week.
http://taylor.evolt.org/dipoz-marn-mujeres.php AERO Aerospace Studies 2A. The development of air power from its beginnings to the end of World War II. It traces the development of various concepts of employment of air power. One hour of class a week. Aerospace Studies 2B. The development of air power from the close of World War II to the present. It focuses upon factors which have prompted research and technological change and stresses significant examples of the impact of air power on strategic thought.